About Gir National Park

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Area

The Gir ecosystem falls in Biogeography Zone-4 [Semi arid] and biogeography province 4-B . Gujarat Rajwada is the last paradise of the Asiatic Lion - Panthera Leo Persica. The government of Gujarat has declared an area of 1421.1 sq kms as protected area which comprises of 258.7 sq kms as National park and 1153.4 sq kms as National park and 1153.4 Sq Kms as Sanctuary. Besides this 470.5 Sq Kms forest area constitutes a buffer zone as reserve, protected and unclassed forest. Thus a total area of 1882.6 Sq Kms forms Gir forest.

Out of a total area of 1882.6 Sq Kms, 1502.7 Sq Kms falls in the Junagadh District and 379.9 Sq Kms in Amreli district. The most important aspect of gir is that it has become a most stable ecosystem with tremendous regenerating, self supporting and sustaining power due to its rich and diverse flora and fauna

 

Location, Topography and Geomorphology

 
Ghir lies between 20o 50o and 21o 50o latitudes and 70o - 50o E and 77o - 50o Longitudes. The land configuration is mainly undulating with moderate hills, valleys and plateaus, without definite direction of the hill ranges. Northern parts are more hilly while the southern parts are relatively less hilly with general drainage of direction being south and south west.

The hills are of Volcanic origin. The main Geological formation is Deccan Trap and main rock types are "Dolomite" and basalt. Besides sand stone, lime stone and metamorphic schist are also present. Volcanic rocks have given rise to the black cotton soil and sand stones and the lime stones have given rise to reddish brown sandy loam soil. Soil texture varies from gravelly along the river banks, clay in deep valleys to stony in the hills.

 

Climate

 
Gir has tropical monsoon climate which is very hot during the summer. Three seasons, Summer, Monsoon and Winters are distinct. Late November to early March is cool and dry followed by the hot dry season. The temperature drops down to 10o during winters and rises to around 43o in summers Mid June to September is the Monsoon period and bulk of precipitation is receive during July and August . The average rainfall ranges between 600mm to 1000 mm. Due to uneven monsoon and uneven distribution of Rainfall droughts are not uncommon.
 

Water Resources

 
Gir forms the catchments' of seven perennial rivers viz Hiran, Saraswati, Datardi, Shingoda, Macchundri, Ghodavadi and Raval. Northern aspects of the northern ridges form the catchments of Shetrunji river flowing outside the sanctuary area. All these major rivers of Gir have perennial water supply except during severe drought. During peak summer, surface water for the wild animals is available only at the 300 or so water points. In order to tap the water resources 4 dams have been constructed along the Hiran, Macchunduri, Raval and Shingoda rivers The total catchments area of these 4 reservoirs is 820 sq Kms while water from the rest of the area remains untapped. 
 

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