Flora

Help Save Wildlife

 

Samtapau and Raizada - 1955, have recorded over 400 plant species where as the botany department of M. S. University of Baroda have recorded over 507 plant species in Gheer forest

Life form Diversity

1   Tree                        132
2   Shrub                      48 
3   Herb                        232
4   Climber                    64
5   Grass                        26
       Total                     507
 

Fauna

 
The Unique ecosystem of Gir harbours about 38 species of mammels, around 300 species of birds, 37 species of reptiles and more than 2000 species of insects

The Main carnivores of ghir are the Asiatic Lion, Leopard, Jungle cat, Hyeana, Jackal, Mongoose, Civet cat and ratel. Desert cats and rusted spotted cats are very rare. The main herbivores of gir are Sambhar, Chital, Spotted deer, Nilgai, Chinkara and wild boar with a small population of black buck.

 
Among the smaller mammals are the porcupines and hares and the rare pangolin. The reptilian fauna is represented by crocodile, the star tortoise, the monitor lizard and a number of species of snakes. Python is also found along the stream banks. The highest population of marsh crocodiles anywhere in one area is found in gir forest.
 
The Avifauna is represented in plenty by more than 300 species of birds most of which are resident. The main scavenger bird is the vulture  of which about 6 species have been recorded. Some of the typical birds of Gir are the Crested Serpent eagle, Bonnali's eagle, Crested Hawk eagle, King Vulture, Brown fish owl, Great Horned owl, Bush quail, Pygmy woodpecker, black headed oriole, crested swift and Indian Pitta. The grey Hornbill is now extinct from this area.
 

 The Asiatic Lion

 
The Gir is known all over the world as the home of the last Asiatic lion. The Lion was once widely distributed in Asia, from Asia Minor and arabia to Persia and India.   
 

In the Indian Subcontinent, its range extended over northern India as far east up to Bihar, with the Narmada marking its southern limits. Before the close of the last century, the Asiatic Lion had become extinct  from its range except Gir. The probable years of its extermination region wise was Bihar in 1840, Delhi 1834, Bhavalpur 1842, Eastern Vindhyas and Bundelkhand 1865, Central India and Rajasthan 1870 and western Aravalis in 1880. The last animal surviving in the wild outside Saurashtra was reported in 1884.

 
By the end of the Nineteenth century the then Nawab of Junagadh indicated the number of Lion to be a dozen in Gir. The lions struggled to survive the severe famine of 1901 to 1905 and they killed many cattle and human beings in their quest for survival. The Nawab provided adequate protection to the Lions and their population increased between the years 1904 to 1911. After the death of the Nawab about 10 to 12 lions were being shot annually but from the year 1911 shooting was rigidly controlled by the British Government. In 1913 the chief wildlife officer reported a population of about 20 lions in Gir.
 

The population estimates given prior to 1936 were only estimations based on personal knowledge and sightings but the first organised census was conducted in 1936 which showed a population of around 287 lions. In the year 1995 the population of Lions crossed the 300 mark and stood at 304 and it the year 200 it was 327.

The population of other animals in Gir National park as per the 2000 census is as follows

Lion - 327, Leopard - 311, Hyaena - 137, Herbivoures - 52000

 

Animals of Gir National Park

 

Order

Family

English Name

Scientific Name

Local Name

         
Insectivorous Soricidae Grey Musk Shrew Sencus murinus Chachunder
Insectivorous Erinaceidae Pale Hedgehog Paraechinus micropus Shero
Chiroptera Pteropodidae Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus Shiyal
Chiroptera Pteropodidae Short Nosed fruit bat Cynopteerus sphinx Chamachidiyu
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae Indian pipistrelle Pipstrellus coromandra -
Chiroptera Emballonuridae Bearded Sheattailed Bat Tophozous melanopogon -
Primates Cercopithecidae Hanuman Langur Presbytis entellus Hanuman Langur
Pholidata Manidae Indian Pangolin Manis crassicaudata Kidikhau
Lagomorpha Leoporide Indian Hare Lepus nigricollis Sasloo
Rhodentia Sciuridaeatus Five stripped farm squirrel Funambulus pennanti Panch tapkavali
Rhodentia Cricetidae Indian Gerbille Tetra Indica Ooonder
Rhodentia Meridae Field Mouse Mus boonduga Kshetriya Oonder
Rhodentia Meridae Common house rat Rattus rattus rattus oonder
Rhodentia Meridae Kutch Rock Rat Rattus rattus girensis Kutch Oonder
Rhodentia Meridae Rock Rat Rattus rattus rufescens Oonder
Rhodentia Meridae Bandicoat Rat Bandicota indica  
Rhodentia Meridae Indian Mole Rat Bandica bengalensis  
Rhodentia Hystelidae Indian Porcupine Hystrix indica Shahudi
Carnivora Canidae Jackal Canis aureus Shiyal
Carnivora Canidae Indian Fox Vulpes engalensis Lonkdi
Carnivora Mustelidae Ratal or Honey Badger Mellivora capensis Ghokhodiya
Carnivora Viverridae Small Indian Civet Vivericula indica Vij
Carnivora Herpestidae Common Mongoose Herpestes edwadsi Naliya
Carnivora Herpestidae Small Indian Mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus Nano Naliya
Carnivora Herpestidae Ruddy Mongoose Herpestes smithi Naliya
Carnivora Hyaenidae Stripped Hyena Hyaena hyaena Jharakh
Carnivora Felidae Asiatic Lion Panthera Leo parsica Sinh
Carnivora Felidae Leopard / Panther Panthera pardus Dipdo
Carnivora Felidae Jungle cat Felis Chaus Jungli Biladi
Carnivora Felidae Desert cat Felis Libyca Raan Biladi
Carnivora Felidae Rusty Spotted cat Felis rubignosa Taapkavari Biladi
Artiodactyla Suidae Indian Wild Boar Sus Scrofa Jungli Bhund
Artiodactyla Cervidae Sambar Cervus unicolor Sambar
Artiodactyla Cervidae Chital/Spotted Deer Axis axis Chital
Artiodactyla Bovidae Chinkara / Indian Gazelle Gazelle gazelle Chinkara
Artiodactyla Bovidae Blackbuck Antilope cervicapra Kaliyar
Artiodactyla Bovidae Chowsingha Tetracerus quadricornis Chowsingha
Artiodactyla Bovidae Nilgai / Blue bull Baselaphus tragocamelus Nilgai
 

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